Jericho Underhill Water District

P.O. Box 174

Underhill, VT 05489



Water Source Information

Your water comes from:

Source Name

Source Water Type






JERICHO UNDERHILL WATER DISTRICT Water System is classified and permitted as a groundwater, non-purchased water system, operating under water system identification #5096.


Meetings are held on the

1st Tuesday of every month at 7:00 pm, Underhill United Church (7 Park St).


January – December 2019


This report is a snapshot of the quality of the water that we provided in 2019. Included are the details about where your water comes from, what it contains, and how it compares to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state standards. We are committed to providing you with information because informed customers are our best allies. This report is designed to inform you about the quality water and services we deliver to you every day. To learn more, please attend any of our regularly scheduled meetings which are held.




Champlin Associates prepared this report.  If you have any questions about Jericho Underhill Water District  water quality, please call (802)879-7136 ext. 105  or email us at


Health Information Regarding Drinking Water:

Some people may be more vulnerable to contaminants in drinking water than the general population. Immuno-compromised persons such as persons with cancer undergoing chemotherapy, persons who have undergone organ transplants, people with HIV/AIDS or other immune system disorders, some elderly, and infants, can be particularly at risk from infections. These people should seek advice about drinking water from their health care providers. EPA/CDC guidelines on appropriate means to lessen the risk of infection by cryptosporidium and other microbiological contaminants are available from EPA’s Safe Drinking Water Hotline (1-800-426-4791).

Drinking water, including bottled water, may reasonably be expected to contain at least small amounts of some contaminants. The presence of contaminants does not necessarily indicate that the water poses a health risk. More information about contaminants and potential health effects can be obtained by calling the Safe Drinking Water Hotline.

If present, elevated levels of lead can cause serious health problems, especially for pregnant women and young children. Lead in drinking water is primarily from materials and components associated with service lines and home plumbing. JERICHO UNDERHILL WATER DISTRICT is responsible for providing high quality drinking water, but cannot control the variety of materials used in plumbing components. When your water has been sitting for several hours, you can minimize the potential for lead exposure by flushing your tap for 30 seconds to 2 minutes before using water for drinking or cooking. If you are concerned about lead in your drinking water, you may wish to have your water tested. Information on lead in drinking water, testing methods, and steps you can take to minimize exposure is available from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline or at

Coliforms are bacteria that are naturally present in the environment and are used as an indicator that other, potentially harmful, waterborne pathogens may be present or that a potential pathway exists through which contamination may enter the drinking water distribution system. We found coliforms indicating the need to look for potential problems in water treatment or distribution. When this occurs, we are required to conduct assessments to identify problems and to correct any problems that were found during these assessments.

Source Water Information:


A source protection plan (spp) for JERICHO UNDERHILL WATER DISTRICT water supply system was approved in 1995 and was updated in April 2018.  A copy of the spp is on file with the JERICHO UNDERHILL WATER DISTRICT Water System and available on the district's website.  Information on the vulnerability of the water supply to contamination (possible sources of contamination) will be found in the approved spp.  Improperly maintained septic systems and proximity to roadways may be possible sources of contamination.



Col a







Jericho Underhill Water District - Water Quality Report                                       2019                  Page 2

Water Quality Data

The table below lists all the drinking water contaminants that we detected during the past year. It also includes the date and results of any contaminants that we detected within the past five years if tested less than once a year. The presence of these contaminants in the water does not necessarily show that the water poses a health risk.

Terms and abbreviations - In this table you may find terms you might not be familiar with. To help you better understand these terms we have provided the following definitions:

Action Level (AL): The concentration of a contaminant which, if exceeded, triggers treatment or other requirements which a water system must follow.

Level 1 Assessment: A level 1 Assessment is a study of the water system to identify potential problems and determine (if possible) why total coliform bacteria have been found in our water system.

Level 2 Assessment: A Level 2 Assessment is a very detailed study of the water system to identify potential problems and determine (if possible) why an E. coli MCL violation has occurred and/or why total coliform bacteria have been found in our water system on multiple occasions.

Locational Running Annual Average (LRAA): The average of sample analytical results for samples taken at a particular monitoring location during four consecutive calendar quarters.

Maximum Contamination Level (MCL): The “Maximum Allowed” MCL is the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCL’s are set as close to the MCLG’s as feasible using the best available treatment technology.Maximum Contamination Level Goal (MCLG): The “Goal” is the level of a contaminant in drinking water below which there is no known or expected risk to human health. MCLG’s allow for a margin of safety.

Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level (MRDL): The highest level of a disinfectant allowed in drinking water. Addition a disinfectant may help control microbial contaminants.

Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goal (MRDLG): The level of a drinking water disinfectant below which there is no known or expected risk to health. MRDLGs do not reflect the benefits of disinfectants in controlling microbial contaminants.

Nephelometric Turbidity Unit (NTU): NTU is a measure of the clarity of water. Turbidity in excess of 5 NTU is just noticeable to the average person.

Parts per million (ppm) or Milligrams per liter (mg/l): (one penny in ten thousand dollars)

Parts per billion (ppb) or Micrograms per liter (ug/l): (one penny in ten million dollars)

Parts per trillion (ppt) or Nanograms per liter (ng/l): (one penny in ten billion dollars)

Picocuries per liter (pCi/L): a measure of radioactivity in water

Running Annual Average (RAA): The average of 4 consecutive quarters (when on quarterly monitoring); values in table represent the highest RAA for the year.

Treatment Technique (TT): A required process intended to reduce the level of a contaminant in drinking water.

90th Percentile: Ninety percent of the samples are below the action level. (Nine of ten sites sampled were at or below this level).


Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS): a group of over 4,000 human-made chemicals (they do not occur naturally) that have been used in industry and consumer products worldwide and includes:

     (PFNA): Perfluorononanoic Acid                                                                             (PFOA): Perfluorooctanoic Acid

     (PFOS): Perfluorooctane Sulfonic Acid                                                                   (PFHpA): Perfluoroheptanoic Acid

     (PFHxS): Perfluorohexane Sulfonic Acid                                                                (DONA): 4,8-Dioxa-3H-perfluorononanoic Acid

     (9Cl-PF3ONS): 9-Chlorohexadecafluoro-3-oxanonane-1-sulfonic Acid               (PFBS): Perfluorobutane Sulfonic Acid

     (HFPO-DA): Hexafluoropropylene Oxide Dimer Acid                                           (PFDoA): Perfluorododecanoic Acid

     (NMeFOSAA): N-methyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetic Acid                       (PFTA): Perfluorotetradecanoic Acid

     (PFDA): Perfluorodecanoic Acid                                                                              (PFUnA): Perfluoroundecanoic Acid

     (PFHxA): Perfluorohexanoic Acid                                                                            (PFTrDA): Perfluorotridecanoic Acid                                                                   

     (NEtFOSAA): N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetic Acid

     (11Cl-PF3OUdS): 11-Chloroeicosafluoro-3-oxaundecane-1-sulfonic Acid






Jericho Underhill Water District – Water Quality Report                                       2019                 Page 3

Detected Contaminants:


Disinfection Residual






0.122 mg/L

0.0 -0.400





Combined Radium (226&228)    


Radium - 226


Radium - 228                                      

Level Detected

         0.58 pCi/L



         0.14 pCi/L


         0.44 pCi/L





0.14 - 0.14


0.44 - 0.44


        5            0



        5           0


        5           0

Sample Date








Chemical Contaminants












Level Detected

2.4 mg/L


0.91 mg/L


0.056 mg/L


67 ppb




2.4 - 2.4


0 - 0.91


0.056 - 0.056


67 - 67




        10            0


         4         4


       NA       NA


       NA       NA




Sample Date









Disinfection by Products


Total Trihalomethanes




5 ppb






5 - 5




       80          0


Sample Date



Lead and Copper Action Levels


Contaminant Detected

Action Level

90th Percentile

Monitoring Period

# of Sites that Exceeded the Action Level

Total # of Sites Sampled


1.3 ppm






15 ppb






*The lead and copper AL (Action Level) exceedance is based on the 90th percentile concentration, not the highest detected result.


Possible Sources of Contamination:

Chlorine - Water additive to control microbes

Combined Radium - Erosion of natural deposits

Radium 226 - Erosion of natural deposits

Radium 228 - Erosion of natural deposits

Arsenic - Erosion of natural deposits; Runoff from orchards; Runoff from glass and electronics production wastes.

Fluoride - Erosion of natural deposits; Water additive which promotes strong teeth; Discharge from fertilizer and aluminum factories

Manganese - Erosion of natural deposits. The Vermont Department of Health has established a Health Advisory of 300 ppb. Manganese equal to or greater than 50 ppb can lead to unacceptable taste or staining of fixtures.

Total Trihalomethanes - By-product of drinking water chlorination

Lead - Corrosion of household plumbing systems; Erosion of natural deposits

Copper - Corrosion of household plumbing systems; Erosion of natural deposits; Leaching from wood preservatives








Jericho Underhill Water District – Water Quality Report                                        2019                 Page 4

Violation(s) that occurred during the year

We are required to monitor your drinking water for specific contaminants on a regular basis. Results of regular monitoring are an indicator of whether or not our drinking water meets health standards. The below table lists any drinking water violations we incurred during 2019. A failure to perform required monitoring means we cannot be sure of the quality of our water during that time.





Drinking Water Contaminants

The sources of drinking water (both tap water and bottled water) include surface water (streams, lakes) and groundwater (wells, springs). As water travels over the land’s surface or through the ground, it dissolves naturally-occurring minerals. It also picks up substances resulting from the presence of animals and human activity. Some “contaminants” may be harmful. Others, such as iron and sulfur, are not harmful. Public water systems treat water to remove contaminants, if any are present.

In order to ensure that your water is safe to drink, we test it regularly according to regulations established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the State of Vermont. These regulations limit the amount of various contaminants:

Microbial contaminants, such as viruses and bacteria, which may come from sewage treatment plants, septic systems, agricultural livestock operations and wildlife

Inorganic contaminants, such as salts and metals, which can be naturally-occurring or result from urban stormwater runoff, industrial or domestic wastewater discharges, oil and gas production, mining or farming.

Pesticides and herbicides may come from a variety of sources such as storm water run-off, agriculture, and residential users.

Radioactive contaminants, which can be naturally occurring or the result of mining activity

Organic contaminants, including synthetic and volatile organic chemicals, which are by-products of industrial processes and petroleum production, and also come from gas stations, urban stormwater run-off, and septic systems.





Distribution Information

The information in this report has been posted electronically on the district's website and a note will be placed in the second quarter bills to all residents of the Jericho Underhill Water District.  It has also been mailed to the State of Vermont Agency of Environmental Conservation.






Jericho Underhill Water District   – Water Quality Report                                       2019                 Page 5


Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) are contaminants you may see reported in your Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) for the first time.

What are PFAS?

PFAS are a group of over 4,000 human-made chemicals (they do not occur naturally) that have been used in industry and consumer products worldwide since at least the 1950s. These chemicals are used to make household and commercial products that resist heat and chemical reactions and repel oil, stains, grease, and water. Some common products that may contain PFAS include non-stick cookware, water-resistant clothing and materials, cleaning products, cosmetics, food packaging materials, and some personal care products. Due to their resilient chemical nature, they don’t readily degrade once they are released into the environment. In addition, the common use of these chemicals in industry and consumer products has led to their widespread impact on the environment. The impact of these chemicals on your drinking water continues to be studied.

Why are PFAS being tested in my drinking water?

In May 2019, Act 21 (S.49), an act relating to the regulation of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in drinking and surface waters, was signed by Governor Scott. This Act provides a comprehensive framework to identify PFAS contamination and to issue new rules to regulate PFAS levels in drinking water.

What if PFAS have been detected in my drinking water?

Act 21 set an interim standard for the detected concentration of five PFAS in drinking water, or the combined concentration of any of the 5 PFAS, which should not exceed 20 parts per trillion (ppt). The interim standard is based on the Health Advisory established by the Vermont Department of Health. The five PFAS are:

     (PFNA): Perfluorononanoic Acid

     (PFOA): Perfluorooctanoic Acid

     (PFOS): Perfluorooctane Sulfonic Acid

     (PFHpA): Perfluoroheptanoic Acid

     (PFHxS): Perfluorohexane Sulfonic Acid

If your water has been tested and the sum any of the five PFAS listed above is confirmed to exceed 20 ppt, a Do Not Drink notice will be issued informing you not to use your water for drinking or cooking, brushing teeth, making ice cubes, making baby formula, washing fruits and vegetables or any other consumptive use. You will be advised to use another source of water for consumption which may include bottled water.

An additional 13 PFAS were required to be tested for, per Act 21. These additional 13 PFAS, listed below, currently do not have an established health-based standard and are not counted toward the combined standard of 20 ppt:

     (11Cl-PF3OUdS): 11-Chloroeicosafluoro-3-oxaundecane-1-sulfonic Acid

     (9Cl-PF3ONS): 9-Chlorohexadecafluoro-3-oxanonane-1-sulfonic Acid

     (DONA): 4,8-Dioxa-3H-perfluorononanoic Acid

     (HFPO-DA): Hexafluoropropylene Oxide Dimer Acid

     (NEtFOSAA): N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetic Acid

     (NMeFOSAA): N-methyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetic Acid

     (PFBS): Perfluorobutane Sulfonic Acid

     (PFDA): Perfluorodecanoic Acid

     (PFDoA): Perfluorododecanoic Acid

     (PFHxA): Perfluorohexanoic Acid

     (PFTA): Perfluorotetradecanoic Acid

     (PFTrDA): Perfluorotridecanoic Acid

     (PFUnA): Perfluoroundecanoic Acid

Where can I learn more about PFAS in drinking water?

For information about the health effects of PFAS, please visit or call the Vermont Department of Health at 1-800-439-8550. If you have specific health concerns, contact your health care provider.